17 – Strings in C Programming Language

In this chapter, we will talk about Strings.

Actually, strings are one-dimensional array of characters terminated by a null character ‘ \0 ‘. Thus a null terminated string contains characters that comprise the string followed by a null.

The following declaration & initialization will create a string of the word “Hello”. To hold the null character at the end of the array, the size of the character array containing the string is one more than the number of characters in the word “Hello”.

Actually you do not place null character at the end of a string. The C compiler automatically places the ‘\0’ at the end of a string when it initializes the array. Let us try to print the above mentioned string:

C supports wide range of functions that manipulate null-terminated strings:

1strcpy(s1, s2);Copy s2 string into s1 string
2strcat(s1, s2);Concatenates string s2 onto the end of string s1.
3strlen(s1);returns the length of s1 string
4strcmp(s1, s2);return 0 if s1 & s2 are same;
less than 0 if s1 < s2;
greater than 0 of s1 > s2
5strchr(s1, ch);Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of character ch in string s1.
6strstr(s1, s2);Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of s2 string in string s1.

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